Amílcar Cabral is one of the greatest and genuine African revolutionary and Pan-Africanist ever walked in Africa, who believed in Africa’s power and culture, as stated by Fidel Castro;
…one of the most lucid and brilliant leaders in Africa, Comrade Amílcar Cabral, who instilled in us tremendous confidence in the future and the success of his struggle for liberation.
Amílcar Cabral was born on 12 October 1924 in Guinea-Bissau. His father came from wealthy landowning family.
Amílcar Cabral studied agrononomy in Lisbon the capital city of Portugal. While in Lisbon studying Cabral founded students movements dedicated to opposing the ruling dictatorship of Portugal and promoting independent movements to colonies under Portuguese in Africa.
When he returned to Africa in 1950s he founded the PAIGC or Partido Africano da Independência da Guinea-Bissau e Cabo Verde in 1956 which can be translated in English as the African Party for the independence of Guinea and Cape Verde). He was among the founders of Movimento Popular Libertação de Angola(MPLA) the same year together with Agostinho Neto. Amílcar Cabral and Agostinho Neto met in Portugal.
Cabral led a guerilla movement against the Portuguese government in Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde which evolved into one of the most successful wars of Independence in modern African history. The movement captured territories from the Portuguese and Cabral became the de facto leader of part of Guinea-Bissau.
Cabral set up training camps in Ghana with Kwame Nkrumah’s permission to prepare for independence.
Cabral trained his lieutenants with effective communication skills to mobilise Guineans tribal chiefs appointed by Portuguese to support PAIGG. As an agronomist Cabral taught his troops farming techniques so that they can feed the whole populace and their own families and also the PAIGC. When they were not fighting, PAIGC teamed up with the local population to till and ploughed the field in preparation for crops.
Cabral and PAIGC also established trade and barter bazaar system that moved around the country making staple goods are available to the countryside with prices lower than those of colonialists store owners. During the war Cabral also set up hospitals and mobile clinics to give medic care to wounded PAIGC soldiers and quality health care to the rest of the population, USSR and Sweden providing the supplies. He was assassinated on 20 January 1973, about eight months before Guinea-Bissau’s unilateral declaration of independence. His half brother Luís Cabral, became the leader of the Guinea-Bissau branch of the party and eventually president of Guinea-Bissau. Many conspiracies came out on who was behind his assassinations including Portuguese and Ahmed Sékou Touré, who according to the conspiracy, he became jealous of Cabral’s international prestige, these theories remained controversial.
Amílcar Cabral was influenced by Marxim, and became an inspiration to revolutionary socialists and national independence movements worldwide.